How to plot stacked bar chart in R?
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How to plot stacked bar chart in R?

How to plot stacked bar chart in R?

This recipe helps you plot stacked bar chart in R

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Recipe Objective

A stacked bar chart is a type of graph which allows us to compare the elements of categories. Each bar represents a whole and it is divided by into sub-bars stacked on top each other which represents as segments. In this type of graph, data can be represented by vertical or horizontal bars. ​

In this recipe we are going to use ggplot2 package to plot the required stacked Chart. ggplot2 package is based on the book Grammar of Graphics by Wilkinson. This package provides flexibility while incorporating different themes and plot specification with a high level of abstraction. The package mainly uses aesthetic mapping and geometric objects as arguments. Different types of geometric objects include: ​

  1. geom_point() - for plotting points
  2. geom_bar() - for plotting bar graph
  3. geom_rect() - for plotting each group as a rectangle
  4. geom_histogram() - for plotting histogram

The basic syntax of gggplot2 plots is: ​

ggplot(data, mapping = aes(x =, y=)) + geometric object ​

where: ​

  1. data : Dataframe that is used to plot the chart
  2. mapping = aes() : aesthetic mapping which deals with controlling axis (x and y indicates the different variables)
  3. geometric object : Indicates the code for typeof plot you need to visualise.

This recipe demonstrates how to make a stacked bar chart using ggplot2.

STEP 1: Loading required library and dataset

Dataset description: It is the basic data about the customers going to the supermarket mall. The variable that we interested in is Annual.Income which is in 1000s and Spending Score

# Data manipulation package library(tidyverse) ​ # ggplot for data visualisation library(ggplot2) ​ # reading a dataset customer_seg = read.csv('Mall_Customers.csv') ​ glimpse(customer_seg)
Rows: 200
Columns: 5
$ CustomerID              1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 1...
$ Gender                  Male, Male, Female, Female, Female, Female, ...
$ Age                     19, 21, 20, 23, 31, 22, 35, 23, 64, 30, 67, ...
$ Annual.Income..k..      15, 15, 16, 16, 17, 17, 18, 18, 19, 19, 19, ...
$ Spending.Score..1.100.  39, 81, 6, 77, 40, 76, 6, 94, 3, 72, 14, 99,...

STEP 2: Plotting a Stacked bar chart using ggplot2

We use geometric object as geom_rect() to plot each group as a rectangle and then converting it to a ring using coor_polar().

Note:

  1. The + sign in the syntax earlier makes the code more readable and enables R to read further code without breaking it.
  2. We also use labs() function to give a title to the graph
ggplot(df, mapping = aes(x = name,y = Amount_USD, fill = factor(type_of_expense))) + geom_bar(stat= "identity")+ labs(title="Expenses of Students")

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