How to reduce dimentionality using PCA in Python?
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How to reduce dimentionality using PCA in Python?

How to reduce dimentionality using PCA in Python?

This recipe helps you reduce dimentionality using PCA in Python

Recipe Objective

In many datasets we find that number of features are very large and if we want to train the model it take more computational cost. To decrease the number of features we can use Principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decrease the number of features by selecting dimension of features which have most of the variance.

So this recipe is a short example of how can reduce dimentionality using PCA in Python.

Step 1 - Import the library

from sklearn import datasets from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler from sklearn.decomposition import PCA

Here we have imported various modules like PCA, datasets and StandardScale from differnt libraries. We will understand the use of these later while using it in the in the code snipet.
For now just have a look on these imports.

Step 2 - Setup the Data

Here we have used datasets to load the inbuilt digits dataset. digits = datasets.load_digits()

Step 3 - Using StandardScaler

StandardScaler is used to remove the outliners and scale the data by making the mean of the data 0 and standard deviation as 1. X = StandardScaler().fit_transform(digits.data) print(); print(X)

Step 4 - Using PCA

We are also using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) which will reduce the dimension of features by creating new features which have most of the varience of the original data. We have passed the parameter n_components as 0.85 which is the percentage of feature in final dataset. We have also printed shape of intial and final dataset. pca = PCA(n_components=0.85, whiten=True) X_pca = pca.fit_transform(X) print(X_pca) print("Original number of features:", X.shape[1]) print("Reduced number of features:", X_pca.shape[1]) Foe better understanding we are applying PCA again. Now We have passed the parameter n_components as 0.85 which is the percentage of feature in final dataset. We have also printed shape of intial and final dataset. pca = PCA(n_components=2, whiten=True) X_pca = pca.fit_transform(X) print(X_pca) print("Original number of features:", X.shape[1]) print("Reduced number of features:", X_pca.shape[1]) As an output we get:

[[ 0.         -0.33501649 -0.04308102 ... -1.14664746 -0.5056698
  -0.19600752]
 [ 0.         -0.33501649 -1.09493684 ...  0.54856067 -0.5056698
  -0.19600752]
 [ 0.         -0.33501649 -1.09493684 ...  1.56568555  1.6951369
  -0.19600752]
 ...
 [ 0.         -0.33501649 -0.88456568 ... -0.12952258 -0.5056698
  -0.19600752]
 [ 0.         -0.33501649 -0.67419451 ...  0.8876023  -0.5056698
  -0.19600752]
 [ 0.         -0.33501649  1.00877481 ...  0.8876023  -0.26113572
  -0.19600752]]

[[ 0.70631939 -0.39512814 -1.73816236 ...  0.60320435 -0.94455291
  -0.60204272]
 [ 0.21732591  0.38276482  1.72878893 ... -0.56722002  0.61131544
   1.02457999]
 [ 0.4804351  -0.13130437  1.33172761 ... -1.51284419 -0.48470912
  -0.52826811]
 ...
 [ 0.37732433 -0.0612296   1.0879821  ...  0.04925597  0.29271531
  -0.33891255]
 [ 0.39705007 -0.15768102 -1.08160094 ...  1.31785641  0.38883981
  -1.21854835]
 [-0.46407544 -0.92213976  0.12493334 ... -1.27242756 -0.34190284
  -1.17852306]]
Original number of features: 64
Reduced number of features: 25

[[ 0.70634542 -0.39504744]
 [ 0.21730901  0.38270788]
 [ 0.48044955 -0.13126596]
 ...
 [ 0.37733004 -0.06120936]
 [ 0.39703595 -0.15774013]
 [-0.46406594 -0.92210953]]
Original number of features: 64
Reduced number of features: 2

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