What are error bar plots and how to use and plot them?
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# What are error bar plots and how to use and plot them?

This recipe explains what are error bar plots and how to use and plot them

## Recipe Objective

What are error bar plots ? How to use and plot them? Error bars are a visualization function that visualizes the variability of data plotted on the cartesian graph. Error bars help us estimate the uncertainty i.e error in our data. Error bar plots can be drawn over for line plots, bar plots etc. Error bars draw error lines that extend from the end of the bar. The length of this line represents the extend of error in the data. Shorter length indicates that the error is less and less variability in data while longer length of the error lines indicates that the data has greater variability and less reliability. This recipe demonstrates an example of error bar plots.

## Step 1 - Install necessary package and library

``` library(ggplot2) ```

## Step 2 - Create a dataframe

The data frame consists of categorical type of data with corresponding standard deviation i.e variability of the data. We calculate for 1 standard deviation. Syntax — **ggplot (data) + geom_bar (aes (x,y)) + geom_errorbar (aes(x,y,ymin,ymax)** Data - input data geom_bar - bar plot aes (x,y) — the aes function — creates mapping from data to geom geom_errorbar() - error barplot ymin — the minimum value of the range ymax — the maximum value of the range .

``` data <- data.frame(values = c(5,10,15,20,25,30), type = c("A","B","C","D","E","F"), sd_dev = c(1.5,2.5,3.5,4.5,5.5,6.5)) print(data) "data is : " values type sd_dev 1 5 A 1.5 2 10 B 2.5 3 15 C 3.5 4 20 D 4.5 5 25 E 5.5 6 30 F 6.5 ```

## Step 3 - Plot the bar chart with error bar

``` ggplot(data)+ geom_bar(aes(x=type,y=values),stat="identity",fill="red")+ geom_errorbar(aes(x=type,ymin=values-sd_dev,ymax=values+sd_dev)) ```

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